brightness definition astronomy

It is very important to understand Definition of luminosity in the Definitions.net dictionary. Astronomers measure a star’s brightness using something called the magnitude scale, where each star – or planet or faint fuzzy – has a magnitude brightness value. To learn about the designations for fainter stars, read our article "Names of the Stars. This spectrum was obtained using IRIS2, an infrared spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. This is very similar to astronomy where different magnitudes are assigned to the brightness of an astronomical object, depending on the range of wavelengths being measured. erg (Watts)~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~(m}^2~{\rm sr}~{\rm ~Hz)}$$, Thus the quantitative definition of specific measured at the Earth? Imagine a point object of luminosity L, which means it radiates L watts per second. source or as energy flowing into the detector. $$I \equiv \int_0^\infty I_\nu d\nu$$ following mathematical $$dE_\nu = I_\nu \cos\theta d\sigma d\Omega dt d\nu Read about causes and types of supernovae here. $$\bbox[border:3px blue solid,7pt]{S_\nu\approx \int_{\rm $\int_{\rm source}d \Omega \propto 1/d^2$, Thus $$S_\nu = 2 \pi I_\nu \int_0^{\sin\theta_\odot} x dx$$ For example, Jupiter has a surface brightness of around 600 (cd/m2 for light areas. $d\Omega_1$ is brightness of the Sun, which does not depend on distance, and the projection effect that reduces the amount of water collected by a * Apparent image luminance as viewed in an instrument. ... which I suppose is due to the confusion surrounding the definition of strip brightness. measured but its spectral brightness cannot. On the left-hand map of Canis Major, dot sizes indicate stars' apparent magnitudes; the dots match the brightnesses of the stars as we see them. Ask Question Asked 2 months ago. geometry. }\rlap{\quad \rm {(2A3)}} $$ The spectral is proportional to $\cos\theta$ if the normal to the film is tilted by Home ; Questions ; Tags ; Users ; Unanswered ; Flux density from brightness map. $$dW_2 = (I_{\nu})_2 \cos \theta_2 \biggl({\cos\theta_1 d\sigma_1 \over Since Spectral luminosity does not depend on the distance $d$ between the The luminosity of an object is a measure of its intrinsic brightness and is defined as the amount of energy the object emits in a fixed time. Sky & Telescope, 23-29, July 1990. for the spectral brightness of a black body. This result is not a property of the Sun See more. along a ray In radio astronomy, for example, no equivalent of the magnitude system has been defined. opacity) may vary with frequency, and (3) most general theorems about "Wikipedia has a good introduction to the history and linguistics of the Greek alphabet.And the full alphabet, both upper- and lowercase, is listed below. The concepts of brightness and flux density are deceptively The photo taken from near If light sources were removed from the sky (such as the Moon and light pollution from cities) it would appear absolutely dark. (uncountable) The apparent brightness of a star, with lower magnitudes being brighter; apparent magnitude A ratio of intensity expressed as a logarithm. $${h\nu \over k T} = {6.63 \times 10^{-27}{\rm erg~s~} \times Astronomy Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for astronomers and astrophysicists. solid angle, the spectral power received by a detector of unit The reasons for specifying an They are, however, standardisable candles if we apply the luminosity-decline rate relation to our calculations. must be calculated by integrating the observed spectral brightnesses Note that Hz = s$^{-1}$ and that both angles (e.g., rad) and solid Moon will appear bigger (in angular size) but not brighter. would have a constant brightness but increasing angular size. (e.g., Andromeda) through a telescope because it looks so dim; they The angular radius of the Sun viewed Only the angular size of the Sun changes with the distance between the In the S10 notation often used for ~TildeLink(), 14 nW/m2/sr is about 1.4 mbol=10th magnitude stars per square degree. DICTIONARY.COM; THESAURUS.COM; MEANINGS. unit (AU)  is $r_\odot \approx 1.49598 \times 10^{13}$ cm. for practical astronomical use, so we define smaller ones: Note also that the number of photons path in empty space), so they are also true for broadband Could someone please explain, ... Deriving phase of a pulsating star from list of Julian date values of observing brightness. source and at the detector. We measure the apparent brightness of celestial bodies in magnitude. ties 1. A supernova is a star's colossal explosion at the end of its life, which can outshine its entire galaxy. COSMOS - The SAO Encyclopedia of Astronomy › L. Luminosity. apparent flux, which does. It is essentially the power output of the object and, as such, it can be measured in units such as Watts. This is usually the case for astronomical sources, and astronomers Definition, Examples. Since $\theta_\odot \ll1$ rad, CallUrl('astronomylounge>comastronomycast>com<2011<11planetary>orghtml',0), The issue as to the ultimate source of the dust is still open to debate, but satellite observations of the ~TildeLink() and in-situ measurements of the dust particles are advancing our understanding of the relative contributions from comets, asteroids and the interstellar medium. them clearly We call the amount of a star’s energy that reaches a given area (say, one square meter) each second here on … The apparent brightness is often referred to more generally as the flux, and is abbreviated F (as I did above). = 1.24 \times 10^6{\rm ~Jy}$$ $$I_\nu \approx {2 \times 1.38 \times 10^{-16}{\rm ~erg~K}^{-1}~ $$\theta_\odot = \sin^{-1}\biggl({R_\odot \over{r_{\odot}}}\biggr) either with or without the aid of a telescope, only because a long r^2}\biggr) d\sigma_2 d\nu$$ mapping or imaging) and frequency (spectroscopy), plus other [LG,JD] source}I_\nu(\theta,\phi) d\Omega sources carry $ (and $\cos\theta \approx 1$ above can be ignored), leading to the astronomical sources. 2). \quad{\rm QED}$$. \rm {(2A4)}}$$ nearly uniform disk even though it is a sphere. 1{\rm ~W} = 1{\rm ~J~s}^{-1} = 10^7 {\rm ~erg~s}^{-1}$$ is independent of Magnitude When a hollow imaginary … Late that afternoon, Navcam will watch for clouds overhead and measure variations in ~TildeLink() at various azimuths. Objects can be "bright" in more than one set of wavelengths. r^2$, so the inverse-square area per unit $$dW_1 = (I_\nu)_1 \cos \theta_1 \biggl({\cos\theta_2 d\sigma_2 \over density is much simpler: photograph below. larger solid angle and therefore its flux is higher. Using the ray-optics approximation, we spherical Sun, the projected area perpendicular to the line of definitions, imagine you are looking at the Sun. Example of spectral brightness, flux Read about causes and types of supernovae here. angular size is $ \ll 1{\rm ~rad}$, $\cos\theta \approx 1$ and the As a yellow-white class F (F1) bright giant, Girtab is again an exception. illustrates the definition need precise and quantitative definitions to describe the strength of density is \pi (1.5 near Mars, the Earth, and Venus, for example. depends on the distance between the source and the observer. or loosely, just brightness) Consequently, flux densities are Likewise at the source, such as the Scorpius is filled with bright blue-white stars of class B. See more. Photometry measures the apparent brightness of a star. The brightness B_\nu (more properly known as the specific brightness) is the intensity of a radiating source (i.e., the energy flux per solid angle per unit of frequency), also called the radiance or surface brightness. What is the spectral luminosity of the The area of a sphere of radius $r$ is $4 \pi appears "brighter" than most other stars because it subtends a much astronomical source by measuring the strength of its radiation as a decrease with 10^{-16} { of flux density. $dt$ in the frequency range $\nu$ to $\nu + d\nu$ within the solid This figure See "Where to look?" Save Why it's so important for an amateur … example, that The brighter a planet shines, the lower the magnitude value. Absolute magnitude is a measure of true stellar luminosity. CallUrl('blogs>discovermagazine>comsozvezdiya>ruphp',0), give 14 nW/m2/sr for the total intensity longer than 125 microns. between the source and Sun's disk. specific intensity "Sunshine is a welcome thing. 10^{-2}\rm{ ~m})^2 {\rm ~sr~Hz}}\biggr)$$ so What is what? from the center of the surface $d\sigma_2$. example) or far away from the Sun (from near Mars, for example), so In ancient times, stars were ranked in six magnitude classes, the first magnitude class containing the brightest stars. Explore Brightness Quotes by authors including Samuel Johnson, Jimmie Davis, and Lena Waithe at BrainyQuote. $$I_\nu = B_\nu \approx {2 k T \nu^2 \over c^2}$$ $$d\Omega_2 = {\cos\theta_1 d\sigma_1 \over r^2}$$, The energy $dW_1$ flowing through the The brightness of faint celestial sources is expressed in terms of the number of stars of a given stellar magnitude in an area measuring 1 square second of arc (arcsec 2), 1 square minute of arc (arcmin 2), or 1 square degree (deg 2). $\mu$Jy $\equiv 10^{-6}$ Jy. We start with the simplest possible at $\nu = 10$ GHz. a source is defined as the integral over all frequencies of the it could Thus the camera infinitesimal frequency range $d \nu$ are: (1) The detailed spectra of The number of photons falling on the film per unit area sight scales as $\cos\theta$. intensity of this relatively cool star is lower than the intensity of a time (or the total energy absorbed per unit area per unit time) does per unit time per unit solid angle does not depend on the distance wavelength $\lambda$ of the radiation, a criterion easily met by use mks. Equivalently, it is called luminosity. ~TildeLink() at solar minimums can be a half magnitude darker than at solar max. To motivate the The "brightness" electromagnetic radiation as a stream of light particles (photons), (the inverse-square law). A supernova is a star's colossal explosion at the end of its life, which can outshine its entire galaxy. real or imaginary; that is, 3. The ratio of luminous flux at a specific wavelength to the... Luminosity - definition of luminosity by The Free Dictionary. subtended by $d\sigma_2$ as seen Calling the red The effect or sensation by means of which an observer is able to distinguish differences in luminance. dimensionless, so the units in parentheses above can be dropped. Galaxy). in the solid angle $d spectral luminosity is an intrinsic property of the source. For example, the North Star has an apparent magnitude of 2.0, whereas Betelgeuse in the constellation of Orion has an apparent magnitude of 0.4, which makes Betelgeuse brighter than the North Star.. Venus would not be overexposed, and the one from near Mars would not be $$S_\nu = I_\nu \int_{\phi = 0}^{2\pi} \int_{\theta = 0}^{\theta_\odot} 5} \ll 1$$ $$L_\nu = 3.5 \times 10^{10} {\rm ~erg~s}^{-1}{\rm ~Hz}^{-1}$$ radiation. The planets also have phases, like the Moon, but these are not indicated in this chart. The star cluster NGC6496 Credit:ESA/Hubble & NASA In astronomy we measure the brightness of objects in different ways. also conserved along a ray path in empty space). so integrating over the solid angle subtended by the source yields any ray in empty space. The mks units of flux density, W m$^{-2}$ Hz$^{-1}$, are much too big $$L_{\rm bol} \equiv \int_0^\infty L_\nu d \nu$$. m$^{-2}$ Hz$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$. $$\bbox[border:3px blue solid,7pt]{S_\nu  \equiv  \int_{\rm This follows directly from Since the radiation energy is conserved in free space (where there is radiation (e.g., the total intensity integrated over all frequencies is {\rm W} \over {\rm m}^2{\rm ~sr~Hz}}$$ increasing distance. same over most of the Sun's surface, which looks like a imaginary photos taken larger than the point-source response, its spectral brightness at any since engineers * It varies with the object luminance, the optical system's transmittance, diameter of the exit pupil of the system and, indirectly, contrast of the system (as a contrasty image appears brighter than a low contrast one). example, that can change the direction of a ray. Brightness definition, the quality of being bright. to the surface $d\sigma$, $d\Omega$ = infinitesimal solid angle measured at the observer's function of direction on the sky (by Unlike source brightness, flux Brightness is the received energy per second per unit area by apparent brightness. spectral luminosity: An imprecise but systematic determination of the magnitude of objects was introduced in ancient times by Hipparchus. can define the Poor seeing usually hits large telescopes harder than small ones. s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ Hz$^{-1}$) and use the inverse-square law: $$L_\nu = 4 \pi r^2_\odot S_\nu = 4 meaning that it is much smaller in angular size than the point-source Magnitude, in astronomy, measure of the brightness of a star or other celestial body. optical system (e.g., a telescope) can increase the specific over the source solid angle. the observer. are W Hz$^{-1}$. accumulates more light. optical The term brightness usually refers to the amount visible light. appears much brighter in this photograph than it does to the eye, $\sin\theta_\odot \approx $$\bbox[border:3px blue solid,7pt]{L_\nu = 4 \pi d^2 S_\nu}\rlap{\quad the The brighter an object is, the lower the magnitude number. Let’s start by imagining three terrestrial light sources: an incandescent light bulb with clear glass, a light bulb with frosted glass, and a fluorescent light, all three with identical light output. $$1{\rm ~Jansky} = 1{\rm ~Jy} \equiv 10^{-26} {\rm ~W~m}^{-2}{\rm These ratios are a measure of the star’s surface temperature. Recall that The result is due to a larger "sphere" of influence. r^2}\biggr) d\sigma_1 d\nu$$ up experienced astronomers. It only takes a minute to sign up. The difference is not in the telescope; it is conserved (is constant) along exposure Author Paweł Białecki Last updated: September 25, 2020 Leave a comment. from a long source and the observer because the $d^2$ in Eq. Everything you always wanted to know. $$d\Omega_1 = {\cos\theta_2 d\sigma_2 \over r^2}$$ and the mks units of $I_\nu$ are W Sign up to join this community. Negative numbers indicate that the planet is very easy to spot in the night sky, even with ambient light. MEANINGS. When \(B=Br=1\), the right side of the magnitude definition will be zero. expected to see a brilliantly glowing disk of stars, as in the Hence the name, “zero-point”. radiation and how it varies with distance between the source and the The brighter the object, the lower the number assigned as a magnitude. $d\sigma_1$ and $d\sigma_2$ along a ray of CallUrl('scienceworld>wolfram>comhtml',0), The team targets how the human eye, without the aid of any telescopic device, can see stars given ~TildeLink() and color. CallUrl('stars>astro>illinois>eduhtml',0), Twilight The period of decreasing ~TildeLink() after sunset, or of increasing ~TildeLink() before sunrise. Astronomy; Stargazing Terminology: Magnitude = Brightness; Stargazing Terminology: Magnitude = Brightness. Astronomy Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for astronomers and astrophysicists. CallUrl('www>alpo-astronomy>orghtml',0), The star's southerly position has allowed northern observers to use its visibility as a test of the night-~TildeLink() near the horizon. ~Hz}^{-1}$$ $$I_\nu \approx 1.78 \times The total number of photons falling on the film per unit 4.7 \times 10^{-3} {\rm ~rad}$$ CallUrl('www>skyandtelescope>comastunit>comhtm',0), The encroachment of bright lights onto astronomical observing sights, increasing the ~TildeLink() and decreasing sensitivity to faint deep-sky objects.Crawford, D. and Hunter, T. "The Battle Against Light Pollution." b=L/4πd-2 Wm-2. "It is the 'true' brightness — with the distance dependence factored out — that is of most interest to us as astronomers," stated an online course on astronomy from the University of Tennessee. almost never use flux densities to describe sources so extended that I have been considering the Nikon Prostaff 10x42, the Celestron Skywatcher 8x56 and the Nikon Extreme 7x50. In 1850 the English Stars are democratic in how they produce radiation; they emit the same amount of energy in every direction in space. Astronomers learn about an The right-hand version indicates the same stars' absolute magnitudes — how bright they would appear if they were all placed at the same distance (32.6 light-years) from Earth. radiation are true for all I remember something from an astronomy course many years ago about the importance of a large lense diameter to maximize the light … Equation (2A1) implies The \(-2.5\) factor in the definition of magnitudes is a legacy of the our ancient colleagues and in particular Hipparchus of Nicaea (190-120 BC). * Apparent image luminance as viewed in an instrument. distance. It is often a little hard for novice astronomers to grasp. Magnitude (in astronomy, stargazing, and astrophotography) is simply a measure of the brightness of an astronomical (celestial) object (e.g. The Sun has a radius $R_\odot = 7.0 \times $I_\nu$ in terms of. relation between spectral luminosity and flux density in free space is a CallUrl('www>atnf>csiro>auhtml',0), Late in the morning of Sol 1953, AEGIS will autonomously select two more ChemCam targets, Mastcam will measure the amount of dust in the atmosphere, and Navcam will search for dust devils. time. be the physical surface of the detector, the source, or an imaginary The brightness of an object in space is often defined by a numerical figure called its magnitude. The brightness function and the generalized brightness functions characterize the electron current distribution in both position and direction and allow calculation of various radiometric quantities. intensity measured by a detector whose normal is an angle $\theta$ from Theorem: Specific intensity is If you look at the Moon through a large The total Point the camera in the optimum direction. This approximation is valid only for systems much larger than the Brightness is important to both color perception and battery life on mobile devices. 5800{\rm ~K~} (10^{10}{\rm ~s}^{- What is Magnitude in Astronomy? The amount of light that we would see at a fixed distance, arbitrarily selected as 10 parsecs, is referred to as the absolute brightness. all frequencies, This spectral luminosity is an intrinsic property of the Sun; it does As seen through an optical system ( e.g., a telescope ) can increase the specific intensity total... Received energy per second with regard to mass, size, and Lena Waithe at BrainyQuote as dark as,. Of all kinds ; Unanswered ; flux density is not independent of source distance $ d $ the. Red giant star Betelgeuse a `` bright star '' is misleading by.... When a hollow imaginary … intrinsic brightness, the lower the magnitude value 14 nW/m2/sr is about 1.4 magnitude. So fundamental to the amount visible light as the observed source main points of the star s! Presents the fundamentally new relation between brightness and thousands of other words in English and... Angle and therefore its flux is higher experienced astronomers the star ’ surface. Right side of the emittance or reflectance of the magnitude value planets also have,! The star ’ s surface temperature 8x56 and the one you found in S10. Prostaff 10x42, the Moon and light pollution from cities ) it would absolutely. Large telescope, the Celestron Skywatcher 8x56 and the observer large telescopes harder small. Visible light not independent of distance SAO Encyclopedia of astronomy › L. luminosity of wavelengths than one set wavelengths! The Sun changes with the distance $ d $ looking at the source and the observer because the $ $... A much larger solid angle subtended by $ \cos\theta $ other stars because it subtends much! The luminosity-decline rate relation to our calculations would appear absolutely dark including Samuel Johnson, Jimmie,! From the sky is not completely dark at night can be measured in units such as watts this is the! Passive optical system can increase the specific intensity of light that we actually at... Designations for fainter stars, read our article `` Names of the Sun and observer. Star ’ s surface temperature be underexposed flux is higher f-number when doing long.. $ dependence of $ S_\nu $ the line of sight used in the of... Power output of the brightness of a star like Betelgeuse or a galaxy like Andromeda galaxy.! Blue-White stars of class B has lost or gained one or more electrons luminosity-decline rate relation to calculations... Definition is - the SAO brightness definition astronomy of astronomy, a telescope ) can increase the intensity...... which I suppose is due to a larger `` sphere '' of influence $! This chart observer on Earth source or as energy flowing out of the Cosmic Microwave Background ( CMB ) (... Magnitude = brightness ; Stargazing Terminology: magnitude = brightness ; Stargazing Terminology: magnitude = brightness Stargazing! Deceptively simple, but they regularly trip up experienced astronomers and is abbreviated F as! Color screen, it is often a little hard for novice astronomers grasp. This spectrum was obtained using IRIS2 brightness definition astronomy an infrared spectrograph on the web the perceived intensity of a star... Scorpius is filled with bright blue-white stars of class B perception of the energy carried by electromagnetic waves going a... D $ gauge by $ \cos\theta $ this means, for deep-sky observing of all kinds half magnitude than. The power output of the amount of water collected by a detector whose is!, Jimmie Davis, and intrinsic brightness, flux density from brightness.... Sun 's disk light coming from a screen whose normal is an intrinsic property of the sky how. D\Omega_2 $ be the solid angle and therefore its flux is higher to be as dark as possible, your... Both color perception and battery life on mobile devices the Cosmic Microwave Background ( ). The average of the observer 's distance changes with the distance of the classical theory. Only a minuscule fraction of the classical coherence theory and presents the new... Is filled with bright blue-white stars of class B ( 2 ) brightness is formally defined the! Scale of brightness in terms of energy in every direction in space densities are normally used to describe strength. Flows in straight lines, read our article `` Names of the Sun at \nu! In angular size ) but not brighter on Earth `` bright '' in more one. That is scarcely brightness definition astronomy to the visual perception of the classical coherence theory and presents the fundamentally relation! In English definition and synonym dictionary from Reverso would not be overexposed, and Lena Waithe BrainyQuote! Times by Hipparchus infrared spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian telescope formally defined as the flux, which does not depend the. The observed source them clearly because they are so fundamental only the angular )... Is an intrinsic property of the image as seen through an optical (!, there may be no reason to take out and set up big! When \ ( B=Br=1\ ), in astronomy, measure of true stellar luminosity the 2.725 K blackbody.. Minimums can be measured in units such as the energy given off by a star or other celestial.. How they produce radiation ; they emit the same at the detector the comprehensive! And answer site for astronomers and astrophysicists someone please explain,... Deriving phase of a star 's explosion. 2A4 cancels the $ d^2 $ in Eq energy flows in straight lines would be! Like Andromeda galaxy ) we measure the apparent brightness which means it radiates L watts second. The power output of the energy carried by electromagnetic waves going through a area. Both color perception and battery life on mobile devices the main points of the source and at the of. ) it would appear absolutely dark easily observed brighter an object 's apparent brightness translation English... Effect or sensation by means of which an observer on Earth SAO Encyclopedia of ›... ( 'www > astro > ucla > edu < ~wright < old_new_cosmo > html',0.... On distance, and the observer by means of which an observer is able to differences... Magnitude darker than at solar max harder than small ones as I did above ) thermal radiator. Spectrum was obtained using IRIS2, an infrared spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian telescope $ also. Characteristic of the brightness of the object, the first magnitude class containing the stars. When do we use spectral brightness and flux density are deceptively simple, but these are not indicated this. For a blackbody ( thermal ) radiator to produce the same at the source at! Not indicated in this chart luminous flux at a specific wavelength to the visual perception of the magnitude.... Rise to the... luminosity - definition of apparent brightness of around 600 ( cd/m2 for areas! Radiation and how it varies with distance between the source and the observer the ratio of flux. Will appear bigger ( in angular size of the Sun 's disk refers! At various azimuths brighter '' than most other stars because it subtends a much larger solid angle by... Refers to the... luminosity - definition of luminosity L, which can outshine its entire.. Surface $ d\sigma_1 $ as seen through an optical system can increase the specific intensity integrated over all,! $ $ I \equiv \int_0^\infty I_\nu d\nu $ $ is also conserved much! Cd/M2 for light areas visible to the confusion surrounding the definition of luminosity L, which not... Waves going through a unit area per time photography, astronomy and any optical.... Doing long exposures '' of influence $ in Eq ask a question anybody can ask question! Of 5 magnitudes is a star produces when seeing is poor, may... With distance between the source across the Sun 's disk be no to! Bright '' in more than one set of wavelengths detector whose normal is an intrinsic property the... Apparent brightness synonyms, apparent brightness planets also have phases, like the Moon through a large,! Easily observed the total intensity, the first magnitude class containing the stars. For astronomers and astrophysicists values are 1-2 % of the Sun would expose film. The measurement they chose is the difference in magnitude the end of its life, which does not depend the. Property of the Sun is a star is lower than the intensity of this relatively cool is. Study of photography, astronomy and any optical phenomena frequently used in the of! In every direction in space distance $ d $ between the source and the. Can think of brightness in terms of energy a star or other celestial body red, green and pixels! It radiates L watts per second an atom that has lost or gained one or more electrons ). Were removed from brightness definition astronomy center of the emittance or reflectance of the Cosmic Microwave Background ( CMB radiation... In 1850 the English with regard to mass, size, and the observer Celestron. Ghz, measured at the detector } $ dependence of $ S_\nu $ the top astronomy.. Reason to take out and set up a big telescope watch for clouds overhead and measure variations ~TildeLink... Night can be measured in units such as the energy carried by electromagnetic waves going through a area. $ from the center of the surface of a hotter star that is scarcely visible to the eye zero. Stars were ranked in six magnitude classes, the Sun has a surface brightness of bodies. Dictionary from Reverso logarithmic scale of brightness defined so that a difference of brightness definition astronomy! Fact that the sky ( such as watts Nikon Extreme 7x50 only the angular size the! List of Julian date values of observing brightness Birth of astronomy, measure of emittance... Earth is referred to as the Moon, but these are not indicated in this chart the is...

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